03 June 2009

We're contributing a major piece of a bigger project. The overall goal of the project is to provide comprehensive development assistance to Huambo province, in Angola. This province was devastated by thirty years of civil war.

The overall project is managed by WorldVision. Through the Rotary Foundation, the Rotary Club of Luanda and District 5230 are providing $250,000 to purchase seed and fertilizer. The overall plan below was prepared by WorldVision and tells the whole story. Our current piece (we're hoping to do more!) forms the core of Phase 2, improving crop yields.


Project Activities during the first year of the project

During the first year of the project the AWM+ will conduct the following major activities:

  • hire project staff;
  • conduct a baseline survey;
  • initiate project activities as described below;
  • conduct a launch training workshop;
  • purchase of a vehicle and computer;
  • achieve the targets stated in Table 1.

Table 1: Summary of Program Impact Indicators

1) To improve water hygiene and sanitation practices that are effective in reducing water borne diseases.

Community activists will collaborate with the Ministry of Health and local communities to train, support and supervise health post staff, community leaders, community selected health workers and committee members to adapt, promote, guide and support household behaviors for preventative and basic health care, including issues relating to water and sanitation. Volunteers will be trained and supported in making regular home visits for high-risk households.

The WATSAN committees will work closely with project activists in educating communities on sanitation and hygiene. Behavioral change communication sessions on hand washing, environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, and latrine construction will be organized and carried out on a regular basis, conscious of the fact that it takes time for practices to change. Training will be linked to other essential themes such as diarrhea, and sound weaning practices to create an integrated approach to health care.

2) Increase crop yields through the adoption of improved production technologies and gravity fed irrigation schemes.

Improved Gravity Fed Irrigation Management

A major investment made by the program will address the capacity building needs of the farmers with respect to social organization, production and marketing and water-scheme management aspects. It is fundamental that from the very beginning, the project adopts a flexible attitude and avoids the temptation of defining a priori the ultimate responsibilities’ thresholds of each respective party as these will find the best and ideal shape only when all the capacity building investments have been completed.

The use of gravity fed irrigation offers the possibility of responding to the market demand for a continuous and regular supply of potatoes and onions for the major market in Luanda. Currently a furrow system of irrigation is in use. The advantages are low initial cost, avoidance of contact of water with plant foliage thereby reducing foliar diseases, few permanent structures, uniform water application and high water application efficiency with good design, operation and control equipment such as siphon tubes and gates available at low cost. The limitations are moderately high labor requirements, engineering design essential for high efficiencies, water inefficiency during transport and erosion hazard from rainfall on steep slopes.

The following aspects of the current irrigation systems will be taken into account for improvement of current practices:

  • Planting on the contour and using the correct slope (up to 5% with row crops) to minimize soil erosion and the transport of pathogens;
  • Improvement to the storage and transport of water for irrigation purposes;
  • Rehabilitation of existing irrigation schemes;
  • Community management of water systems to take into account the needs for human consumption, animal consumption and washing purposes.

Seeds of improved crop varieties

The project will work to promote a sustainable supply of seed of improved crop varieties through three basic areas of activity:

Multiplication of seed of potatoes by commercial seed producers;
Multiplication of basic seed of improved crop varieties through Community Seed Banks;
Access to commercial suppliers of seeds of improved crop varieties.

The crop focus is on high value non-perishable cash crops that can support the high cost of transport to distant markets and include the following:

  • Irish Potatoes (export quality);
  • Phaseolus Beans (manteiga type);
  • Onions, Garlic and Carrots.

Field Demonstrations of Improved Crop Technology

WVA, in close collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture in the central highlands, will promote improved technology packages for crop production and sustainable soil fertility improvement practices. WVA will partner with MINADER to further organize and stimulate production among beneficiary farmers by transmitting a series of basic, technical messages, which farmers can use to significantly increase yields on their farms. Disseminating objective technical messages will require an active group of qualified agronomists and extension agents who know how to communicate with farmers and are equipped to do so. The use of economically sound technical recommendations with MINADER will also serve to develop the market for input supply.

Soil Fertility Management

The soils of the central highlands are inherently deficient in nitrogen and phosphate and in many areas have been grossly depleted of essential plant nutrients by years of cropping with no addition of nutrients. As a result the response to fertilizer is often high. Even though fertilizer use is widely understood by farmers, a large project of participative evaluation and demonstration is needed to ensure suitable use and rapid widespread adoption. The project will stimulate the private sector to support a massive upswing in the use of fertilizer and improved crop varieties in the central highlands of Angola. Widespread, intensive fertilizer use is essential to the high yielding agriculture needed to bring prosperity to the Planalto and to the economy of Angola. It is not possible to expect increased (or even stable) yields in many areas without replacing the nutrients that are removed with each crop. Adoption of new high yielding crop varieties will further increase the crop yield and hence the extraction of nutrients.

Once smallholder farmers are on the scale of commercial production, linkages will be facilitated with suppliers of agricultural inputs. The use of economically sound technical recommendations will serve to develop the market for input supply. Credit through bank micro finance with the Bank of Savings and Credit will allow Farmers Associations to access essential imported inputs such as fertilizer, animal traction equipment and vegetable seeds supplied at the most competitive prices. The priority need for credit by smallholder producers is primarily for fertilizer, and also for seeds, animal traction implements, packing materials and crop protection chemicals.

3) Enhance the ability of farmer organizations to manage water systems, business relationships, access rural credit and achieve economies of scale in input and output markets

Capacity Building of Farmer Organizations

The essential element in any strategy for agricultural development revolves around the capacity building of farmers associations and their members (with gender sensitivity) to increase their development capabilities. There has been a serious disruption of human capacity to promote agricultural development activities. The development of social capital will create synergies with private sector initiatives for input supply, rural credit and improved access to markets.

Access to Credit

The Bank of Savings and Credit BPC has opened a line of credit that requires World Vision and MINADER to provide technical assistance and business services to smallholder farmers so that they can qualify for rural credit. World Vision, as a provider of business development services will provide training to clients eligible for credit from the partner Bank of Saving and Credit at the level of the association. Group training topics will include loan approval criteria, and the concept and practice of solidarity.

Linkages will be facilitated with suppliers of agricultural inputs and the use of economically sound technical recommendations will serve to develop the market for input supply. Credit in kind through bank micro finance with Bank of Savings and Credit will allow Farmers Associations to access essential imported inputs such as fertilizer, animal traction equipment and vegetable seeds supplied at the most competitive prices.

Small rural enterprises that are organized into Farmers Associations that have started the process for the legal registration will be eligible for loans. Loans will be made in US$ or Kwanzas indexed to the US$ with an interest rate of 1% per month. The priority need for credit by smallholder producers is primarily for fertilizer, and also for seeds, farming implements and packing materials.

Business Development Services

World Vision, as a provider of non-financial, business development services will provide training to clients at the level of the association and to the Apex Trading Unit. Group training topics will include loan approval criteria, and the concept and practice of solidarity. The following major steps can be identified in the credit cycle:

  • Diagnosis of Association capabilities, opportunities and needs to strengthen capability;
  • Structuring, election of a credit/administrative committee and definition of statutes;
  • Identification of high value market and structuring of the crop production chain;
  • Development of a generic business plan for Farmers Associations in each microregion;
  • Identification of individual needs for finance by a credit committee of the Farmers Association;
  • WV identify lowest cost source of required inputs and negotiate bulk supply;
  • WV and MINADER provide technical assistance for the production process and post harvest processing;
  • Institutional viability through Federations and an Apex Trading Unit;
  • Training in community organization, planning of production for identified markets, processing and packaging, business management, trading and accounting.

Access to Markets

A major factor contributing to the success of WVI-Angola’s project for economic development is to ensure that the enterprises are viable by linking Farmers Associations to pre-identified, high value output markets. Many farmers cannot identify profitable markets for produce. They are subject to low prices given by itinerant traders and are involved in inefficient individual trading at commune and municipality level markets. Smallholder farmers lack the economy of scale needed to reach more lucrative provincial level markets and lack the business skills necessary to evaluate and trade in these markets.

The project will assist the farmers associations with access to information and the knowledge of how to best use information to make business decisions, after providing business training to the groups. WVI-Angola staff will monitor agriculture commodity prices at major markets and adapt mechanisms to share market price information with farmer groups. Farmer groups will be linked to services for identification of markets, product processing and quality control, and other buyer requirements in distant markets. The following activities will improve the margin on the trading of agricultural produce in food markets and substitute imports:

  • Crop production scheduling, seasonality and estimation of production potential;
  • Identification of informal/formal markets and pre-sales negotiation;
  • Cost analysis and economics of the supply chain;
  • Monitoring of prices, publication of market information and transport costs;
  • Post harvest technology and handling, packing, quality improvement and assurance mechanisms and selection/grading;
  • Bulk transport to distant markets;
  • Sales management and credit repayment at the moment of sale.

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